This written assessment has thirteen (13) possible questions. You will choose five (5) to answer. Your choice must include at least one (1) question that requires images from your physics practical labs. Subjects covered may be image quality, artifacts, image optimisation, instrumentation or the physics of ultrasound. Images from your physics practical labs may be shared within your lab group. Those images will not be overtly judged on their quality (i.e. containing undesirable artifacts or poorly optimised), but it is assumed that together with your tutor, you shall identify and collect images of reasonable quality. Formulae, flow-charts, diagrams and images may be used to illustrate your answer, even when not specifically asked for.
Word Count is 2000 +/- 10% (e.g.200) words, excluding tables, charts, diagrams and reference list
As a sonographer, you must understand the physical principles which create the images you are acquiring and the artifacts observed during the sonographic imaging process. This helps you improve your images and may help in diagnosis e.g. the posterior shadow from a kidney calculus or the posterior enhancement from a breast cyst. A sonographer must be able to use ultrasound equipment safely, and be familiar with the safety guidelines set by any governing bodies.
You must use APA in-text referencing system. References for each answer must be included in a References Page at the end of the assignment. Ensure that you reference your answers using at least two (2) different sources for each question. At least one (1) reference must be a primary source for each question. The same reference source may be used for more than one individual question. Contact CQU library staff for guidance if required.
The use of Endnote TM referencing software is expected. Another document will be given for details on how to download and use Endnote TM.
Via Turnitin using MEDS12001 Moodle site.
File must be in a ‘word’ file i.e. docx. NOT PDF.
File name <your surname>_<your student number>_MEDS12001assessment
You need to submit the assignment with a cover page stating your:
Group members from Physics Lab 1
Start a new page for each question.
All written work must be demonstrably your own. For those repeating this subject, Self-plagiarism is also viewed harshly by the Office of Learning and Teaching. Images used from MEDS12001 Physics practical labs are permitted with correct referencing. Any work suspected of plagiarism will be reported to the Learning and Teaching Office. Be aware that no Turnitin score is established to rule out plagiarism. An incident of plagiarism may result in reduced marks, a mention on your permanent academic record or other further action that may affect your academic career. Please familiarise yourself with the Academic Misconduct Procedure.
Choice of Questions
Please choose five (5) to complete your assessment
1. Explain the concept of attenuation in different mediums. Describe the concept of posterior acoustic enhancement. Support this with images you obtained in Physics Lab 1.
2. Discuss the benefits and limitations of prospective cine-loop capture versus retrospective cine-loop capture. Give clinically relevant examples to justify your statements.
3. Explain the shape of the ultrasound beam and discuss each dimension of the beam and where the best spatial resolution is achieved. What imaging artifacts arise from machine- based assumptions regarding the ultrasound beam?
4. Discuss the two (2) different types of reverberation. Give examples of how we may use them diagnostically.
5. Explain the concept of aliasing as it relates to Spectral Doppler Imaging.
6. Describe how the FOV can be altered laterally using a linear transducer and how this is achieved. Support this with images with from Physics Lab 1.
7. Discuss different types of resolution utilised in Medical Sonography and Echocardiography. Give examples of their impact on clinical scanning.
8. Describe the differences between Continuous Wave (CW) Doppler and Pulsed Wave (PW) Doppler. What are the clinical limitations of CW Doppler? What are the clinical limitations of PW Doppler?
9. Explain and describe what happens to sound as it encounters soft tissue/air interfaces and soft tissue/bone interfaces (sound transmission and reflection). Use images obtained in Physics lab 1 to support your explanation.
10. Explain the two (2) types of bioeffects of ultrasound within tissue. How do we monitor them during medical diagnostic imaging? Describe how we can adhere to the principles of ‘as low as reasonably achievable’ (ALARA) as they relate to medical diagnostic ultrasound examinations.
11. Explain the artifact 'anisotropy' as it relates to Medical Sonography and Echocardiography. Include in your answer the cause of 'anisotropy' and any diagnostic benefits or limitations.
12. Discuss Shear Wave Elastography for Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis. Include in your answer the physical principle behind the technology, any diagnostic criteria and its clinical utility.
13. Explain the different machine processes used to create Tissue Doppler Imaging and Speckle Tracking. What limitations of Tissue Doppler Imaging are overcome in Speckle Tracking? What is the clinical utility of each technique?