PMSC13008 - Evaluating Emergency Services Risks
Term 1 - 2017


All details in this unit profile for PMSC13008 have been officially approved by CQUniversity and represent a learning partnership between the University and you (our student). The information will not be changed unless absolutely necessary and any change will be clearly indicated by an approved correction included in the profile.

Overview

This unit will prepare emergency services personnel to determine and quantify occupational risks, compare those risks between industries, agencies and occupations and to develop interventions to mitigate those occupational risks.

Details

Career Level Undergraduate
Unit Level Level 3
Credit Points 6
Student Contribution Band 2
Fraction of Full-Time Student Load 0.125

Attendance Requirements

All on-campus students are expected to attend scheduled classes – in some units, these classes are identified as a mandatory (pass/fail) component and attendance is compulsory. International students, on a student visa, must maintain a full time study load and meet both attendance and academic progress requirements in each study period (satisfactory attendance for International students is defined as maintaining at least an 80% attendance record).

Offerings

Term 1 - 2017
  • Distance

Website

This unit has a website, within the Moodle system, which is available two weeks before the start of term. It is important that you visit your Moodle site throughout the term. Go to Moodle

Recommended Student Time Commitment

Each 6-credit Undergraduate unit at CQUniversity requires an overall time commitment of an average of 12.5 hours of study per week, making a total of 150 hours for the unit.

Class Timetable

Assessment Overview

Assessment Task Weighting
1. Written Assessment 10%
2. Written Assessment 30%
3. Written Assessment 60%

This is a graded unit: your overall grade will be calculated from the marks or grades for each assessment task, based on the relative weightings shown in the table above. You must obtain an overall mark for the unit of at least 50%, or an overall grade of ‘pass’ in order to pass the unit. If any ‘pass/fail’ tasks are shown in the table above they must also be completed successfully (‘pass’ grade). You must also meet any minimum mark requirements specified for a particular assessment task, as detailed in the ‘assessment task’ section (note that in some instances, the minimum mark for a task may be greater than 50%). Consult the University’s Grades and Results Procedures for more details of interim results and final grades.

All University policies are available on the IMPortal.

You may wish to view these policies:

  • Grades and Results Procedure
  • Assessment Policy and Procedure (Higher Education Coursework)
  • Review of Grade Procedure
  • Academic Misconduct Procedure
  • Monitoring Academic Progress (MAP) Policy and Procedure – Domestic Students
  • Monitoring Academic Progress (MAP) Policy and Procedure – International Students
  • Refund and Excess Payments (Credit Balances) Policy and Procedure
  • Student Feedback – Compliments and Complaints Policy and Procedure
  • Acceptable Use of Information and Communications Technology Facilities and Devices Policy and Procedure

This list is not an exhaustive list of all University policies. The full list of University policies are available on the IMPortal.

On successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
  1. Analyse occupational injury and fatality rates
  2. Construct a minumum data set needed to calculate injury and fatality rates
  3. Appraise injury and fatality rates for a given population of emergency services personnel

No external accreditation applicable

Alignment of Assessment Tasks to Learning Outcomes

Assessment Tasks Learning Outcomes
1 2 3
1 - Written Assessment    
2 - Written Assessment    
3 - Written Assessment    

Alignment of Graduate Attributes to Learning Outcomes

  • Introductory Level
  • Intermediate Level
  • Graduate Level
Graduate Attributes Learning Outcomes
1 2 3
1. Communication
2. Problem Solving  
3. Critical Thinking
4. Information Literacy    
5. Team Work      
6. Information Technology Competence    
7. Cross Cultural Competence      
8. Ethical practice      

Alignment of Assessment Tasks to Graduate Attributes

  • Introductory Level
  • Intermediate Level
  • Graduate Level
Assessment Tasks Graduate Attributes
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 - Written Assessment              
2 - Written Assessment          
3 - Written Assessment        

Textbook Information

There are no required textbooks.

IT Resources

You will need access to the following IT resources:
  • CQUniversity Student Email
  • Internet
  • Unit Website (Moodle)
All submissions for this unit must use the Harvard (author-date) referencing style (details can be obtained here). For further information, see the Assessment Tasks below.
Unit CoordinatorBrian Maguire (b.maguire@cqu.edu.au)
Note: Check the Term-Specific section for any additional contact information provided by the teaching team
Week Begin Date Module/Topic Chapter Events and Submissions
Week 1 06-03-2017

Introduction

Choosing a topic

Maguire BJ. EMS Research. In Walz BJ. (Ed.) Introduction to EMS Systems. Delmar Learn. Aug 2001.

O’Meara P, Maguire BJ, Jennings P, Simpson P. Building an Australasian paramedicine research agenda: a narrative review. Health Research Policy and Systems. 2015; 13: 79. [1.81] Full text available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4678527/

The Writing Guide

Suggested reading: http://www.cqu.edu.au/student-life/services-and-facilites/referencing

CQU. The Great Guide to University Study. 2013. Available at: https://my.cqu.edu.au/documents/10165/2178077/Great+Guide+to+University+Study/b8b60a74-ee39-4d31-b74e-e198d6b98c43

Maguire BJ, O’Meara P, Newton A. Toward an international paramedic research agenda. Irish Journal of Paramedicine. 2016; 1(2). Full text available at: http://www.lenus.ie/hse/bitstream/10147/620961/1/Maguire+Research.pdf

Introduce yourself on the class Moodle site.

Week 2 13-03-2017

Overview of Risks

Maguire BJ, O’Meara P, Brightwell R, O’Neill BJ, FitzGerald G. Occupational Injuries and Fatalities among Paramedics in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia. 2014; 200(8): 477-80.

Reichard AA, Jackson LL. Occupational injuries among emergency responders. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 2010;53(1):1-11

Maguire BJ, Smith S. Injuries and fatalities among emergency medical technicians and paramedics in the United States. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(4): 1-7.

Ferguson P, Prenzler T, Sarre R, De Caires B. Police and security officer experiences of occupational violence and injury in Australia. International Journal of Police Science & Management. 2011;13(3):223-33

Suggested discussion: In your experience, what are the main factors that contribute to injuries among emergency services personnel?

Week 3 20-03-2017

Statistics

Calculating injury and fatality rates handout

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

How to Compute Your Firm’s Incidence Rate

http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/osh/os/osh06_appc.pdf

Standardized Coding

http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/osh/os/osh06_appd.pdf

Safe Work Australia

http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/swa/statistics/ltifr/pages/lost-time-injury-frequency-rates

Reference

Occupational Injury and Illness Classification Manual

http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshoiics.htm

Activity. Review the discussion posts from weeks 1 and 2 and consider who you would like to work with for Assessment 2. Reach out to those individuals and create your team. Once your team is finalized, notify Prof. Maguire. Individuals who have not created teams by the end of week 3 will be assigned to teams by Prof. Maguire.

Week 4 27-03-2017

Fatal injuries

Maguire BJ, Hunting KL, Smith GS, Levick NR. Occupational Fatalities in EMS: A Hidden Crisis. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2002; 40(6): 625-632.

Clarke C, Zak MJ. Fatalities to law enforcement officers and firefighters, 1992-97. Compensation and Working Conditions. 1999;15:3-7

Optional: Alexandria City Fire Department. Line of Duty Death. Investigative Report. Medic II Joshua A. Weissman. 20 Nov 14. Available at: http://www.alexandriava.gov/uploadedFiles/fire/info/Weissman%20LODD%20Report%20Final%20of%20Final%2012.22.2014.pdf Accessed 23 Jan 15.

Assessment I due

Written Assessment Due Thursday (30 Mar 17) 04:00 PM AEST
Week 5 03-04-2017

Non-fatal Injuries

Maguire BJ, Hunting KL, Guidotti TL, Smith GS. Occupational Injuries Among Emergency Medical Services Personnel. Prehospital Emergency Care. 2005; 9: 405–411.

Suyama J, Rittenberger JC, Patterson PD, Hostler D. Comparison of public safety provider injury rates. Prehospital Emergency Care. 2009;13(4):451-55

Karter MJ Jr., Molis JL. U.S. Firefighter Injuries - 2013. NFPA; 2014. Available at: http://www.nfpa.org/~/media/Files/Research/NFPA%20reports/Fire%20service%20statistics/osffinjuries.pdf. Accessed 23 Jan 15.

Suggested activity 1

Vacation Week 10-04-2017
Week 6 17-04-2017

Transportation-related risks

Maguire BJ. Transportation-Related Injuries and Fatalities among Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 2011; 26(5): 346-352.

Maguire BJ. Ambulance Safety. In Cone DC. (Ed) Emergency Medical Services: Clinical Practice & Systems Oversight. NAEMSP. Wiley Pub. 2015.

Fahy RF. U.S. Firefighter Fatalities in Road Vehicle Crashes - 1998-2007. NFPA. Available at: http://www.nfpa.org/~/media/files/research/nfpa%20reports/fire%20service%20statistics/osffvehicledeaths.pdf. Accessed 21 Jan 15.

Maguire BJ. Characterizing Ambulance Driver Training in EMS Systems. In response to: U.S. DOT Docket ID Number NHTSA-2014-0127. Submitted 29 January 2015. Available at http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=NHTSA-2014-0127-0002. Access. 17 Feb 15.

Suggested discussion topic: What are some of the main factors that influence the risks of transportation related injuries for emergency services personnel?

Week 7 24-04-2017

Transportation-related risks II

Maguire BJ. Ambulance Safety in the U.S. J of Emergency Management. 2003; 1(1): 15-18.

Maguire BJ, Porco FV. EMS and vehicle safety. Emergency Medical Services. 1997; 26(11):39-43.



Suggested reading: Best Practices for Emergency Vehicle and Roadway Operations Safety in the Emergency Services. IAFF. Available at: http://www.iaff.org/hs/EVSP/Best%20Practices.pdf. Accessed 21 Jan 15

Assessment 2 due

Written Assessment Due Friday (28 Apr 17) 03:00 PM AEST
Week 8 01-05-2017

International & disaster-related risks

Mitchell CS, Maguire BJ, Guidotti TL. Worker Health and Safety in Disaster Response. In Ciottone G. (Ed.) Disaster Medicine. Mosby Pub. 2014.

Maguire BJ, Dean S, Bissell RA, Walz BJ. Bumbak D. Epidemic and Bioterrorism preparation among EMS systems. Prehosp and Disaster Medicine. 2007; 22(3): 237–242.

Discussion: How should emergency services personnel prepare to respond to another country for an international disaster?

Week 9 08-05-2017

Diseases

Makiela S, Taylor-Robinson AW, Weber A, Maguire BJ. A Preliminary Assessment of Contamination of Emergency Service Helicopters with MRSA and Multi-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emergency Medicine: Open Access. 2016; 6: 304. [0.25] doi:10.4172/2165-7548.1000304. Full text available at: http://www.omicsgroup.org/journals/a-preliminary-assessment-of-contamination-of-emergency-service-helicopters-with-mrsa-and-multiresistant-staphylococcus-aureus-2165-7548-1000304.pdf

Al Amiry A, Bissell RA, Maguire BJ, Alves DW. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization prevalence among Emergency Medical Services personnel. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(4):1-5.

Daniels RD. Bert S. Dahm MM. et al. Exposure–response relationships for select cancer and non-cancer health outcomes in a cohort of US firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago and Philadelphia (1950–2009). Occup Environ Med doi:10.1136/oemed-2014-102671

Discussion. Communicable diseases present threats to responders, partners, family members and to the people who call us for help. How can we identify and minimize the risks of communi-cable disease transmission?

Week 10 15-05-2017

Violence

OSHA. Guidelines for Preventing Workplace Violence for Health Care & Social Service Workers. Available at: https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3148/osha3148.html. Accessed 19 Jan 15

Maguire BJ, O’Meara P and O’Neill BJ. Violence Against Paramedics: Developing the Tools to End the Epidemic. Response. 2016; 43(1): 24.

Taylor, Jennifer A., et al. "Expecting the unexpected: a mixed methods study of violence to EMS responders in an urban fire department." American journal of industrial medicine (2015).

Video:

https://au.tv.yahoo.com/sunrise/video/watch/34390330/paramedics-have-the-most-dangerous-job-in-the-country/6)

Optional: (Note that the presentation begins at about minute 6)

https://video.cqu.edu.au/ess/portal/section/936c159b-2473-41a0-a5c9-ec860e6db09d

Suggested discussion: Who are the typical perpetrators of violence against emergency services personnel?

Week 11 22-05-2017

Safety & risk reduction

Maguire BJ. EMS occupational safety issues, implications, and remedy. In: Keebler J LE, Misasi P. ed. The Ergonomics and Human Factors of Prehospital Emergency Care. CRC Press, 2017.

Maguire BJ. Australian Safety and Quality Goals. Letter to the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. 2012. Available at: http://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/National-Goals-consultation-Submission-19-Brian-Maguire-Charles-Sturt-University-20-Jan-2012.pdf

Ten Ss of Injury Prevention

Nabeel I, Baker BA, McGrail MP Jr, Flottemesch TJ. Correlation between physical activity, fitness, and musculoskeletal injuries in police officers. Minn Med. 2007 Sep;90(9):40-3.

Discussion. What might you add to the Ten Ss of injury prevention? Why?

Week 12 29-05-2017

Preventing crashes

Maguire BJ. Preventing Ambulance Collision Injuries Among EMS Providers: Part 2. EMS Manager and Supervisor. 2003; 5(3): 4-7.

Maguire BJ. Preventing Ambulance Collision Injuries Among EMS Providers: Part 1. EMS Manager and Supervisor. 2003; 5(2): 4.

Discussion. Haddon’s Matrix is a tool to help us consider potential casual and preventive strategies related to injuries. Can you either add items to the Haddon’s Matrix in the reading or create a new Matrix for another occupational risk?

Review/Exam Week 05-06-2017

Review

Written Assessment Due Thursday (08 Jun 17) 03:00 PM AEST
Exam Week 12-06-2017

Assessment 3 due

1 Written Assessment

Assessment Title Written Assessment
Task Description

Task Description: Describe your emergency services agency (maximum 100 words) and describe: why it is important to understand its risks and how you think the risks at that agency compare to a published report (max 500 words). The total word count maximum is 600 words. Cite the published report you are referencing. Post to the Moodle forum. Note: Assessment I should focus on your emergency services agency. If you are not currently working at an emergency services agency, contact Prof. Maguire.

Assessment Due Date Week 4 Thursday (30-Mar-2017) 04:00 PM AEST
Return Date to Students Week 6 Friday (21-Apr-2017)
Weighting 10%
Assessment Criteria

* The emergency services agency is described
* Occupational injury and fatality rates stated
* A comparison of risks to the published report provided
* Appropriate referencing used
* Correct spelling and grammar

Referencing Style Harvard (author-date)
Submission Online

Learning Outcomes Assessed
This section can be expanded to view the assessed learning outcomes

1. Analyse occupational injury and fatality rates

Graduate Attributes
This section can be expanded to view the assessed graduate attributes

1. Communication



2 Written Assessment

Assessment Title Written Assessment
Task Description

Title: Minimum data set

Preamble: During the first three weeks of Term you may choose one or two other students to work with on this project. Let Prof. Maguire know the members of the team. If you are not able to find a partner(s) Prof. Maguire will assign teams. Teams are encouraged to use a program such as Google docs to share drafts of the working documents.

Task Description: Working together in teams of two or three, construct a dataset needed to determine injury and fatality rates for a given group of emergency services personnel. Create an Excel spreadsheet with the criteria and submit a description of the set (maximum 500 words per group member). Cite your sources for choosing the criteria.

Note: be sure that the names and email addresses of each team member are on both the Excel spreadsheet and on the description document.

Assessment Due Date Week 7 Friday (28-Apr-2017) 03:00 PM AEST
Return Date to Students Week 9 Friday (12-May-2017)
Weighting 30%
Assessment Criteria

* Excel spreadsheet dataset is sufficient to determine injury and fatality rates for a given group of emergency services personnel

* The description of the set includes:
- The emergency services agency is described
- Appropriate referencing used
- Correct spelling and grammar

Referencing Style Harvard (author-date)
Submission Online

Learning Outcomes Assessed
This section can be expanded to view the assessed learning outcomes

2. Construct a minumum data set needed to calculate injury and fatality rates

Graduate Attributes
This section can be expanded to view the assessed graduate attributes

1. Communication

2. Problem Solving

3. Critical Thinking



3 Written Assessment

Assessment Title Written Assessment
Task Description

Title: Population Risks

Task Description: For the population of emergency services personnel at your agency (or the one selected by your group), describe their risks in comparison to populations of other emergency services personnel and/or to the average for all workers. Note any risks that may be unique. Describe ways that the risks for this population might be reduced. (Maximum 1,200 words). Cite your sources. Note: this assignment can be done individually or in groups of two or three students. If working in a group, the maximum word count for the project is 1,000 words per student.

Note: if working in a group, the names and email addresses of each group member must be included on the paper.

Assessment Due Date Review/Exam Week Thursday (08-Jun-2017) 03:00 PM AEST
Return Date to Students Exam Week Friday (16-Jun-2017)
Weighting 60%
Assessment Criteria

* The emergency services agency is described
* Occupational injury rates stated
* A comparison of risks to the published report provided
* Includes suggestions for prevention
* Appropriate referencing used
* Correct spelling and grammar

Referencing Style Harvard (author-date)
Submission Online

Learning Outcomes Assessed
This section can be expanded to view the assessed learning outcomes

3. Appraise injury and fatality rates for a given population of emergency services personnel

Graduate Attributes
This section can be expanded to view the assessed graduate attributes

1. Communication

2. Problem Solving

3. Critical Thinking

4. Information Literacy




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